Isothiocyanate-containing mustard protects human cells against genotoxins in vitro and in vivo.
Human intervention trials in which cytogenetic biomarkers are used as intermediate endpoints in carcinogenesis are implicitly required to support the assumption of chemo-preventive efficacy.
To evaluate the genotoxic and anti-genotoxic properties of defined isothiocyanate-containing mustard, we first used a human liver cell-line and then conducted a controlled pilot human intervention trial. Blood from volunteers served as surrogate tissue for time-kinetic analysis of the chemo-preventive effect of mustard consumption.
Mustard extracts displayed significant anti-genotoxicity against benzo(a)pyrene in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. At high concentrations, the extracts induced genotoxicity by themselves without compromising cell viability. The protective effect of mustard supplementation against DNA damage induced ex vivo was detected in blood of volunteers within 12 h after the start of the intervention, and increased over time. No genotoxicity was induced in human peripheral mononuclear blood cells by mustard intake over the whole period of the study. Also, liver parameters remained within the normal range at all times. Although no change in total plasma GST activity was detected, plasma alpha-GST levels increased over time, peaking at 48 h.
The results suggest the capacity of small amounts of isothiocyanate-containing food to protect cells from DNA damage, even with short-term application.
Lamy, E.; Schmitz, St.; Krumbein, A.; Mersch-Sundermann, V. 2011. Isothiocyanate-containing mustard protects human cells against genotoxins in vitro and in vivo. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 726 (2), 146-150.