Environmental plasticity of Pinot noir grapevine leaves; a trans-European study of morphological and biochemical changes along a 1500 km latitudinal climatic gradient.
A two-year study explored metabolic and phenotypic plasticity of sun acclimated Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir leaves collected from twelve locations across a 36.69oN – 49.98oN latitudinal gradient. Leaf morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed in the context of meteorological parameters and the latitudinal gradient. We found that leaf fresh weight and area were negatively correlated with both global and UV radiation; cumulated global radiation being a stronger correlator. Cumulative UV radiation (sumUVR) was the strongest correlator with most leaf metabolites and pigments. Leaf UV absorbing pigments, total antioxidant capacities and phenolic compounds increased with increasing sumUVR, while total carotenoids and xanthophylls decreased. Despite of this re-allocation of metabolic resources from carotenoids to phenolics, an increase in xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) with increasing sumUVR indicates active, dynamic protection for the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, increased amounts of flavonoids (quercetin-glycosides) and constitutive β-carotene and α-tocopherol pools provide antioxidant protection against ROS. However, rather than a continuum of plant acclimation responses, principal component analysis indicates clusters of metabolic states across the explored 1500 km long latitudinal gradient. This study emphasises the physiological component of plant responses to latitudinal gradients, and reveals the physiological plasticity that may act to complement genetic adaptations.
Castagna, A.; Csepregi, K.; Neugart, S.; Zipoli, G.; Večeřová, K.; Jakab, G.; Jug, T.; Llorens, L.; Martínez-Abaigar, J.; Martínez-Lüscher, J.; NĂşĂąez-Olivera, E.; Ranieri, A.; Schoedl-Hummel, K.; Schreiner, M.; Teszlák, P.; Tittmann, S.; Urban, O.; Verdaguer, D.; Jansen, M. A.K.; Hideg, É. 2017. Environmental plasticity of Pinot noir grapevine leaves; a trans-European study of morphological and biochemical changes along a 1500 km latitudinal climatic gradient. Plant, Cell & Environment 40, 2790-2805.