Effects of glucotropaeolin after acute ingestion of Indian cress on the hormone and cytokine secretion in humans.
Background and aims: Glucotropaeolin is the major glucosinolate in Indian cress (nasturtium; Tropaeolum majus L.). Its highly reactive breakdown product, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), demonstrated antibacterial, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in rodent studies. The aim of this study was to investigate acute effects of BITC on the hormone and cytokine secretion in humans.
Methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. After overnight fasting, participants consumed 10 g freeze-dried Indian cress dissolved in water (intervention day) or only water (control day). Blood and urine samples were taken every hour, and BITC metabolites were analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. For ex vivo analysis of inflammatory response, whole blood samples taken 4 h after the consumption of Indian cress were stimulated with 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h, and cytokine secretion was measured using Luminex technology.
Results: BITC metabolites in plasma and urine peaked 3-5 h after Indian cress consumption. Acute ingestion of Indian cress had no effect on biochemical parameters including cholesterol, triglyceride, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, insulin and GIP levels. However, an anorectic hormone PYY produced mainly by enteroendocrine l-cells in the distal gastrointestinal tract was increased 2-6 h after the cress consumption. Furthermore, the satiety index was higher on the intervention day compared to control. The incretin hormone GLP-1 synthesized by the same cells was also increased 1 h after the cress consumption. The LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β was reduced in samples received the cress compared to control.
Conclusion: The present data demonstrated that acute ingestion of Indian cress leads to large increase of BITC metabolites, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and increases plasma PYY secretion in humans.
Schiess, S.; Platz, S.; Kemper, M.; Schreiner, M.; Mewis, I.; Glatt, H.R.; Rohn, S.; Pivovarova, O.; Pfeiffer, A.F.H. 2015. Effects of glucotropaeolin after acute ingestion of Indian cress on the hormone and cytokine secretion in humans. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 123, P05_01.