Distribution of indole-3-acetic acid in Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings and relationship between auxin transport, carbohydrate metabolism and adventitious root formation.
To determine the contribution of polar auxin transport (PAT) to auxin accumulation and to adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings, the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was monitored in non-treated cuttings and cuttings treated with the auxin transport blocker naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and was complemented with precise anatomical studies. The temporal course of carbohydrates, amino acids and activities of controlling enzymes was also investigated. Analysis of initial spatial IAA distribution in the cuttings revealed that approximately 40 and 10 % of the total IAA pool was present in the leaves and the stem base as rooting zone, respectively. A negative correlation existed between leaf size and IAA concentration. After excision of cuttings, IAA showed an early increase in the stem base with two peaks at 2 and 24 h post excision and, thereafter, a decline to low levels. This was mirrored by the expression pattern of the auxin-responsive GH3 gene. NPA treatment completely suppressed the 24-h peak of IAA and severely inhibited root formation. It also reduced activities of cell wall and vacuolar invertases in the early phase of AR formation and inhibited the rise of activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase during later stages. We propose a model in which spontaneous AR formation in Petunia cuttings is dependent on PAT and on the resulting 24-h peak of IAA in the rooting zone, where it induces early cellular events and also stimulates sink establishment. Subsequent root development stimulates glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway.
Ahkami, A.H.; Melzer, M.; Ghaffari, M.R.; Pollmann, S.; Javid, M.G.; Shahinnia, F.; Hajirezaei, M.R.; Druege, U. 2013. Distribution of indole-3-acetic acid in Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings and relationship between auxin transport, carbohydrate metabolism and adventitious root formation. Planta 238 (3), 499-517.