Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress: Luminescence Assays.
Boron (B) toxicity symptoms are visible in the form of necrotic spots and may worsen the oxidative stress caused by salinity. Hence, the interactive effects of combined salinity and B toxicity stress on antioxidative activities (TAC, LUPO, SOSA, CAT, and GR) were investigated by novel luminescence assays and standard photometric procedures. Wheat plants grown under hydroponic conditions were treated with 2.5 ?M H3BO3 (control), 75 mM NaCl, 200 ?M H3BO3, or 75 mM NaCl + 200 ?M H3BO3, and analysed 6 weeks after germination. Shoot fresh weight (FW), shoot dry weight (DW), and relative water content (RWC) were significantly reduced, whereas the antioxidative activity of all enzymes was increased under salinity compared with the control. High B application led to necrotic leaf spots but did not influence growth parameters. Following NaCl + B treatment, shoot DW, RWC, SOSA, GR, and CAT activities remained the same compared with NaCl alone, whereas the TAC and LUPO activities were increased under the combined stress compared with NaCl alone. However, shoot FW was significantly reduced under NaCl + B compared with NaCl alone, as an additive effect of combined stress. Thus, we found an adjustment of antioxidative enzyme activity to the interactive effects of NaCl and high B. The stress factor “salt” mainly produced more oxidative stress than that of the factor “high B”. Furthermore, addition of higher B in the presence of NaCl increases TAC and LUPO demonstrating that increased LUPO activity is an important physiological response in wheat plants against multiple stresses.
Masood, S.; Saleh, L.; Witzel, K.; Plieth, C.; Mühling, K.H. 2012. Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress: Luminescence Assays. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 56, 56-61.