Bioavailability and metabolism of benzyl glucosinolate in humans consuming Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus L.).
Scope: Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), which occurs in Brassicales, has demonstrated chemopreventive potency and cancer treatment properties in cell and animal studies. However, fate of BITC in human body is not comprehensively studied. Therefore, the present human intervention study investigates the metabolism of the glucosinolate (GSL) glucotropaeolin and its corresponding BITC metabolites. Analysing BITC metabolites in plasma and urine should reveal insights about resorption, metabolism, and excretion.
Methods and results: 15 healthy men were randomly recruited for a crossover study and consumed 10 g freeze-dried Indian cress as a liquid preparation containing 1,000 μmol glucotropaeolin. Blood and urine samples were taken at several time points and investigated by LC-ESI-MS/MS after sample preparation using SPE. Plasma contained high levels of BITC-glutathione (BITC-GSH), BITC-cysteinylglycine (BITC-CysGly), and BITC-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (BITC-NAC) 1–5 h after ingestion, with BITC-CysGly appearing as the main metabolite. Compared to human plasma, the main urinary metabolites were BITC-NAC and BITC-Cys, determined 4–6 h after ingestion.
Conclusion: This study confirms that consumption of Indian cress increases the concentration of BITC metabolites in human plasma and urine. The outcome of this human intervention study supports clinical research dealing with GSL-containing innovative food products or pharmaceutical preparations.
Platz, S.; Kühn, C.; Schiess, S.; Schreiner, M.; Kemper, M.; Pivovarova, O.; Pfeiffer, A.F.H.; Rohn, S. 2015. Bioavailability and metabolism of benzyl glucosinolate in humans consuming Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus L.). Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 60(3), 652-660.