African nightshade (Solanum scabrum Mill.): impact of cultivation and plant processing on its health promoting potential as determined in a human liver cell model
Plant cultivation and processing may impact nutrient and phytochemical content of vegetables. The present study aimed at determining the influence of cultivation and processing on the health promoting capacity of African nightshade (Solanum scabrum Mill.) leaves, an indigenous vegetable, rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. Anti-genotoxicity against the human liver carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) as determined by the comet assay and radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated in human derived liver (HepG2) cells. ROS scavenging activity was assessed using electron paramagnetic spin resonance and quantification of ARE/Nrf2 mediated gene expression. The cultivation was done under different environmental conditions. The processing included fermentation and cooking; postharvest ultraviolet irradiation (UV-C) treatment was also investigated. Overall, S. scabrum extracts showed strong health promoting potential, the highest potential was observed with the fermented extract, which showed a 60% reduction of AFB1 induced DNA damage and a 38% reduction in FeSO4 induced oxidative stress. The content of total polyphenols, carotenoids and chlorophylls was indeed affected by cultivation and processing. Based on the present in vitro findings consumption of S. scabrum leaves could be further encouraged, preferentially after cooking or fermentation of the plant.
Odongo, G.; Schlotz, N.; Baldermann, S.; Neugart, S.; Huyskens-Keil, S.; Ngwene, B.; Trierweiler, B.; Schreiner, M.; Lamy, E. 2018. African nightshade (Solanum scabrum Mill.): impact of cultivation and plant processing on its health promoting potential as determined in a human liver cell model. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1532.