Root factor induce mitochondrial-related-gene expression and fungal respiration during the developmental switch from asymbiosis to presymbiosis in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora rosea.
During spore germination, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi show limited hyphal development in the absence of a host plant (asymbiotic). In the presence of root exudates, they switch to a new developmental stage (presymbiotic) characterized by extensive hyphal branching. Fresymbiotic branching of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea was induced in liquid medium by a semipurified exudate fraction from carrot (Daucus carota) root organ cultures. Changes in RNA accumulation pattems wcre monitored by differential display analysis. Differentially appearing cDNA fragments were cloned and further analyzed. Five cDNA fragments could be identified that show induccd RNA accumulation l h after the addition of root exudate. Sequence similaritios of two fragments to mammalian Nco4 and mitochondrial rRNA genes suggested that root exudates could influence fungal respiratory activity. To support this hypothesis, additional putative mitochondrial related-genes were shown to be induced by root exudates. These genes were identified after subtractivc hybridization and putatively encode a pyruvate carboxylase and a mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase. The gcne GrosPycl for the pyruvate carboxylase was studied in more detail by cloning a cDNA and by quantifying its RNA accumulation. The hypothesis that respiratory activity of AM fungi is stimulated by root exudates was confirmed by physiological and cytological analyses in G. rosea and Glomus intraradices. Oxygen consumption and reducing activity of both fungi was induced after 3 and 2 h of exposition with the root factor, respectively, and the first respiration activation was detected in G. intraradices after approximately 90 min. In addition, changes in mitochondrial morphology, orientation, and overall biomass were detected in G. rosea after 4 h. In summary, the root-exuded factor rapidly induces the expression of certain fungal genes and, in turn, fungal respiratory activity before intense branching. This defines the developmental switch from asymbiosis to presymbiosis, first by gene
activation (0.5-1 h), subsequently on the physiological level (1.5-3 h), and finally as a morphological response (after 5 h).
Tamasloukht, M’Barek; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Kluever, A.; Jauneau, A.; Roux, Ch.; Bécard, G.; Franken, P. 2003. Root factor induce mitochondrial-related-gene expression and fungal respiration during the developmental switch from asymbiosis to presymbiosis in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora rosea. Plant Physiology 131, 1468-1478.