Morphology and glucosinolate profiles of chimeric Brassica and the responses of Bemisia tabaci in host selection, oviposition and development.
Plant structures and chemicals, which are developed from the shoot apical meristem (SAM), form the main barriers to insect feeding. A plant chimera containing cells of different genetic origins in the SAM will be morphologically and chemically different compared with the parents and thus may result in differential resistance to herbivores. In this study, we explore if particular elements of plant resistance are localized in one of the layers of SAM; the replacement of one cell layer in a chimera may be linked to change of a single resistance trait to herbivores. The morphology and glucosinolate profiles of two periclinal chimeras (labeled as TTC and TCC, respectively) and grafted parents tuber mustard (labeled as TTT) and red cabbage (labeled as CCC) were compared and the performance of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in host selection, oviposition preference and development were assessed under controlled conditions. Both chimeras possessed leaf trichomes as parent tuber mustard TTT, however, TTC had significantly more trichomes than TCC and parent TTT. Leaf wax content of both chimeras was intermediate between the two parents. Five aliphatic and two indole glucosinolates were detected in both chimeras, whereas three aliphatic glucosinolates (3-methyl-sulfinylpropyl, 4-methyl-sulfinylbutyl and 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl) were not detected in tuber mustard, and one aliphatic glucosinolate (3-butenyl) was not detected in red cabbage. Unexpectedly for a chimera, the quantities of two aliphatic glucosinolates (3-methyl-sulfinylpropyl and 4-methyl-sulfinylbutyl) in both TTC and TCC were 3 to 5-fold higher than parents. In olfactory preference assays, B. tabaci showed preference to CCC, followed by TCC, TTC and TTT, and number of eggs laid showed the same pattern: CCC>TCC>TTC>TTT. Interestingly, more whiteflies landed on TTT plants than the other three types in a free choice experiment and the developmental duration from egg to adult was the shortest on TTT and increased in the order TTT<TTC <TCC<CCC. Our results indicate plant defenses traits of leaf waxes, trichomes and glucosinolates are not controlled by one cell layer of SAM, but are inﬂuenced by interactions amongst cell layers. The overall fndings suggest that periclinal chimera systems can be a valuable approach for the study of plant-insect interactions and may also be useful for future resistance breeding.
Li, J.; Rao, L.; Xie, H.; Schreiner, M.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y. 2017. Morphology and glucosinolate profiles of chimeric Brassica and the responses of Bemisia tabaci in host selection, oviposition and development. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 2017, 16(0): 60345-7