Genotypic and climatic influences on the concentration and composition of flavonoids in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and concentration of flavonoid aglycones in kale, the dependence on genotype and their interaction with decreasing temperature and global radiation. Eight kale cultivars, comprising hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested four times at 4-week intervals. The traditional, old cultivars in particular contained high concentrations of flavonoids. In all of the investigated cultivars, kaempferol was the main flavonoid aglycone, followed by quercetin and isorhamnetin, which was quantified in six of the eight cultivars. Furthermore, in six of the eight cultivars, the total concentration of flavonoids remained unchanged with decreasing temperature and global radiation. The quercetin concentration increased in five of these six cultivars, whereas the kaempferol concentration decreased. Interestingly, the quercetin-to-kaempferol ratio increased in all of the investigated cultivars, despite the fact that the radiation level decreased, suggesting that the impact of the decline in temperature could be responsible for this effect.
Schmidt, S.; Zietz, M.; Schreiner, M.; Rohn, S.; Kroh, L.W.; Krumbein, A. 2010. Genotypic and climatic influences on the concentration and composition of flavonoids in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica). Food Chemistry 119, 1293-1299.